International Journal of Engineering and Innovations <p>International Journal of Engineering and Innovations <strong>[IJEI</strong>] is published by <strong>VEMU Institute of Technology.</strong></p> <p>International Journal of Engineering and Innovations [IJEI] is an open access, scholarly peer-reviewed, and academic research journal for scientists, engineers, research scholars, and academicians, which gains a foothold in Asia and opens to the world, aims to publish original, theoretical and practical advances in Computer Science,Information Technology, Engineering (Software, Mechanical, Civil, Electronics &amp; Electrical), Management and Information Sciences and all interdisciplinary streams of Computing Sciences. It intends to disseminate original, scientific, theoretical or applied research in the field of Computer Sciences and allied fields. It provides a platform for publishing results and research with a strong empirical component.</p> <p>International Journal of Engineering and Innovations [IJEI] aims to bridge the significant gap between research and practice by promoting the publication of original, novel, industry-relevant research. Authors are cordially invited to submit the full-length paper, Original and unpublished research articles, based on theoretical or experimental works, are solicited for publication in the journal. Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or academic thesis) and is not under consideration for publication elsewhere.</p> en-US (Dr. Naveen Kilari, PhD) (Managing Editor) Sun, 01 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Loss of Head Due to Non-Uniform Flow Through Porous Media <p>Frozen sherbets are products similar to ice cream, but differ from it by having a higher fruit acid content, a much lower overrun, a higher sugar content between 25 and 35% which gives a lower melting point, a coarser texture, a greater cooling characteristic while being consumed and an apparent lack of richness due to lower milk solids content. Keeping in view the demand for these products in summer, a technology was developed for the manufacture of orange-flavored frozen sherbet. The effect of various ingredients like squash level, milk, sugar, stabilizer, emulsifier, and the citric acid level was studied and their levels optimized. The optimized parameters for orange frozen sherbet were (for a four-liter batch): orange squash 500g, milk 1.5 lit, sugar 650g, sodium alginate 8.5g, GMS 5g, and citric acid 7.5g. The method of preparation included selection of ingredients, mixing of milk, squash, stabilizer, citric acid and emulsifiers in a vessel, heating the mix to 80°C, cooling to about 5°C, aging the mix at 5°C for 24hrs, freezing the aged mix in a batch freezer to a freezing point of about -5°C, packing in 100 ml capacity polystyrene cups and hardening at – 15°C.</p> Bhanu Prakasham Reddy N., Krishnaiah S., Ramakrishna Reddy M. Copyright (c) 2019 International journal of Engineering and Innovations Thu, 26 Dec 2019 16:05:16 +0000 Thermal efficiency Improvement of Direct Absorption Solar Collector using TiO2- Water Nano fluid <p>In the present work thermal performance of Direct Absorption Solar Collector (DASC) with TiO<sub>2</sub>-water (nano fluid) as working fluid was investigated experimentally. DASC utilizes the principle of volumetric absorption i.e. solar energy absorbed by a thin film of working fluid flowing over the collector plate. The experimental study was carried out in four phases; in first phase flow rate was kept 2 lpm and volume fraction of nanofluid was changed from 0.001% to 0.007%, in second and third phase same procedure was followed for 2.5 lpm and 1.5 lpm flow rates respectively. In fourth phase the experiment was carried out with water for 1.5 lpm, 2 lpm and lpm and the performance of collector was analyzed. Results obtained suggest that for water as a working fluid, thermal performance of the DASC at 2 lpm was better. Secondly, when nano fluid was used as a working fluid, thermal performance of the collector was found better for 0.005% volume concentration.</p> Sreenivasa Rao Ch., Gupta AVSSKS Copyright (c) 2019 International journal of Engineering and Innovations Sun, 01 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Analysis of Roll Cooling System in Hot Strip Mill <p>Hot Strip Mill (HSM) in Jindal Vijayanagara Steel Limited (JVSL), Toranagallu, Bellary (Dist.), Karnataka is facing a problem such as shorter campaigns, improper strip profile, reduced productivity and increased roll cost. The main cause of these problems is an ineffective work roll and backup roll cooling system for roughing stands. An attempt has been made to design the existing system in terms of number and flow rate of nozzles, nozzle angle and orientation and thermal gradient for various rolling schedules.</p> Srikar Gemaraju Copyright (c) 2019 International journal of Engineering and Innovations Thu, 26 Dec 2019 16:08:40 +0000 Comparative Analysis of Decimal Addition Using Different Techniques <p>Arithmetic operations of any of the digital devices like Calculator, computers, microcontrollers and other specialized digital systems are on the Base 10 number system only. By Representing these kinds of numbers in BCD the decimal precision applications has DSP, DIP are required in computer arithmetic. An adder for that kind of application must have arithmetic modules that are worked based on coded decimal numbers and data as stored in the similar number format. In this paper, we proposed a decimal adder which is on FPGA based Mixed BCD/excess-6 technique that gives the better performance of decimal adders intended high-end FPGAs. We design adder with help of CLA(CLA), but in this paper, we implement a method decimal adder using carry increment adder (CIA) and to analyzing area and delay are compared with the existing decimal adder. The results of the new decimal adder efficiently improved features like area and delay. There are different types of possible decimal adder circuits, depending upon the code used to perform the decimal digits.</p> Haridhar B. , Yugesh D. Copyright (c) 2019 Sun, 01 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Qualified Image Watermarking with Approximate Adders Using Xilinx System Generator <p>Image security is playing a key role in present real-world situations as the data transferring is mainly through digital images which may not secure. Hence, we present a novel algorithm for image watermarking using the error recovery adder and discrete wavelet transform. This process involves the hiding of one secret image into the host image qualitatively. For this process error recovery adder (ERA) is used to select the dynamic threshold value from the minimum values of the secret and host image. This error recovery adder reduces delay of the process. This work consists of both embedding and extraction process. The experimental consequences propose that the projected method provide results with high PSNR values.</p> Reshma Sk., Naga Keerthana Devi E. Copyright (c) 2019 Sun, 01 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0000